Lugalbanda the god and father of Gilgamesh. Sumerian: lugal-banda3da, young/fierce king is a character found in Sumerian mythology and literature. Lugalbanda is listed in the postdiluvian period of the Sumerian king list as the second king of Uruk, saying he ruled for 1,200 years, and providing him with the epithet of the Shepherd. Whether a king Lugalbanda ever historically ruled over Uruk, and if so, at what time, is quite uncertain. Attempts to date him in the, ED 2, period are based on an amalgamation of data from the epic traditions of the 2nd Millennium with unclear archaeological observations. Lugalbanda prominently features as the hero of two Sumerian stories dated to the Ur III period (21st century BCE), called by scholars, Lugalbanda the 1st (or Lugalbanda in the Mountain Cave) and Lugalbanda the 2nd (or Lugalbanda and the Anzu Bird) Both are known only in later versions, although there is an Ur 3 fragment that is quite different than either 18th century version. These tales are part of a series of stories that describe the conflicts between, Enmerkar, king of Unug (Uruk) and Ensuhkeshdanna, lord of Aratta, presumably in the Iranian highlands. In these two stories, Lugalbanda is a soldier in the army of, Enmerkar, whose name also appears in the Sumerian King List as the first king of Uruk and predecessor of Lugalbanda. The extant fragments make no reference to Lugalbanda’s succession as king following Enmerkar. Lugalbanda appears in Sumerian literary sources as early as the mid-3rd millennium, as attested by a mythological text from, Abu Salabikh, that describes a romantic relationship between Lugalbanda and Ninsun. A deified Lugalbanda often appears as the husband of the goddess Ninsun. In the earliest god-lists from Fara, his name appears separate and in a much lower ranking than Ninsun, but in later traditions, until the Seleucid period, his name is often listed in god-lists along with his consort Ninsun. Ample evidence for the worship of Lugalbanda as a deity comes from the Ur 3 period, as attested in tablets from Nippur, Ur, Umma, and Puzrish-Dagan. In the Old Babylonian period, Sin-kashid of Uruk is known to have built a temple called, É-KI-KAL dedicated to Lugalbanda and Ninsun, and to have assigned his daughter Niši-īnī-šu as the eresh-dingir priestess of Lugalbanda. In royal hymns of the Ur 3 period, Ur-Nammu of Ur and his son, Shulgi describe Lugalbanda and Ninsun as their holy parents, and in the same context call themselves the brother of the Giant King Gilgamesh. Sin-Kashid of Uruk also refers to Lugalbanda and Ninsun as his divine parents and names Lugalbanda as his god. In the Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh and in earlier Sumerian stories about the hero, the king of Uruk, the Giant Gilgamesh, calls himself the son of Lugalbanda and Ninsun. In the mystery of Gilgamesh and Huwawa tale, the hero consistently uses the assertive phrase: “By the life of my own mother Ninsun and of my father, holy Lugalbanda!” In ancient Akkadian versions of the epic, Gilgamesh also refers to Lugalbanda as his personal god, and in one episode presents the oil filled horns of the defeated Bull of Heaven “for the anointing of his god Lugalbanda” Gilgamesh or Gilgameš was originally Bilgamesh the Giant King.
Although certain deities are described as members of the Anunnaki, no complete list of the names of all the Anunnaki has survived and they are usually only referred to as a cohesive group in literary texts. Furthermore, Sumerian texts describe the Anunnaki inconsistently and do not agree on how many Anunnaki there were, or what their divine function was. Originally, the Anunnaki appear to have been heavenly deities with immense powers. In the poem Enki and the World Order, the Anunnaki “do homage” to Enki, sing hymns of praise in his honor, and “take up their dwellings” among the people of Sumer. The same composition repeatedly states that the Anunnaki “decree the fates of mankind”. Please watch video for more on the gods of the ancient Sumerian culture at ancient mystery on youtube.
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